Generic Glucotrol is a blood sugar lowering agent. It stimulates the release of insulin from functionally active beta cells of the pancreas. It helps to reduce the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting glucose concentration in patients with moderate or severe forms of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. It also increases glucose tolerance, free fluid clearance, reduces post-food hyperglycemia. The insulinotropic response develops within 30 minutes after ingestion. It does not affect the lipid profile.
When Glucotrol is taken?
This drug is taken in the diagnosis of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (overweight or normal body mass).
How to take this medicine?
This medicine is taken orally (30 minutes before meals). The dose is selected individually in accordance with the indicators of glucose in the blood, glycosuria.
The standard starting dose is 5 mg/day. If necessary, the dose is increased to 10 mg/day. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg.
Patients who have previously received oral hypoglycemic agents should start with a lower dose. When combined treatment with insulin, keep in mind that the need for insulin decreases.
Pregnancy and lactation
FDA category of action on the fetus is C. Studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus, however, proper studies in humans have not been performed. If it is necessary to treat women during lactation, breastfeeding is stopped.
What are the symptoms of an overdose?
There may be found the following symptoms: hypoglycemia manifested by a feeling of hunger, severe weakness, anxiety, dizziness, muscle tremors, palpitations, headache, sweating, visual and speech disorders, cerebral edema, impaired consciousness, the development of hypoglycemic coma.
What treatment is prescribed for overdose?
In mild cases, it is recommended to take sugar (syrup, juice, sweet tea, honey). In severe cases, intravenous administration of 40% glucose solution, infusion of 5–10% dextrose solution, intramuscular administration of 1–2 mg of glucagon are held. In the case of cerebral edema, the introduction of a solution of mannitol, dexamethasone is prescribed. Glycemia is monitored every 15 minutes, creatinine, urea nitrogen, pH, electrolytes in the blood.
What should I tell my doctor before taking the medicine?
- Hypersensitivity, pregnancy, lactation;
- Diseases requiring insulin administration: type 1 diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic precoma and coma, hyperosmolar coma, extensive burns, major surgery, severe trauma and infectious diseases;
- Feverish syndrome, alcoholism, hepatic and/or renal failure, leukopenia.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a change in the residence time of the drug in the intestine (intestinal obstruction, gastric paresis, diarrhea).
What side effects may appear after taking Glucotrol?
- Hypoglycemia (anxiety, confusion, decreased ability to concentrate, feeling tired, thirst, flies before the eyes, increased sweating, pallor of the skin, palpitations, headache, nausea, nervousness, “nightmares”, insomnia, slurred speech), hypoglycemic coma.
- The skin: a rash on the skin and mucous membranes, pruritus, exudative erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome), toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome), photosensitivity.
- The side of hematopoiesis: inhibition of bone marrow hematopoiesis (anemia, aplastic and hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia).
- The digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, flatulence, cholestatic jaundice, liver failure, hepatic porphyria, hepatitis, late cutaneous (symptomatic) porphyria.
- The senses: blurred vision, impaired accommodation.
- Others: weight gain, myalgia, convulsions, hyponatremia, disulfiram-like reactions.
How does alcohol affect a person with diabetes?
If you are newly diagnosed with diabetes, be sure to become familiar with the side effects of alcohol. Drinking large amounts of alcohol can have a massive impact on the body and increase the risk of developing complications in the future. There are the following effects:
- neuropathy (nerve damage). The consumption of alcohol in large quantities has a significant toxic effect on the nervous tissues of the body. Since long-term diabetes or poor control of diabetes itself damages nerve tissue, additional exposure to alcohol only speeds up the process and leads to even more widespread nerve damage.
- chronic pancreatitis. One of the most common side effects of high alcohol consumption is chronic pancreatitis. This disease is characterized by inflammation of the pancreas due to damage caused by alcohol consumption or other factors. Since this disease can lead to the development of second type of diabetes mellitus, it is recommended to follow the recommendations for the maximum dose of alcohol consumed.
- weight gain. Alcohol can contain a lot of calories that are often unnoticed. If you consume beer regularly, keep in mind that there are about 180 calories in each pint of beer – more than a regular chocolate bar. These calories can lead to serious problems in type 2 diabetics who are trying to lose weight, including health complications.
How are Glucotrol and alcohol combined?
One of the main properties of ethyl alcohol is to lower blood sugar levels. Therefore, it is very dangerous to combine alcohol with drugs that are taken by patients with diabetes – insulin and other hypoglycemic drugs like Glucotrol. Alcohol enhances their effects and can cause hypoglycemia – a life-threatening drop in glucose levels (this can happen to a healthy person if you drink too much, especially on an empty stomach). Symptoms of mild initial hypoglycemia – fever, tremors, weakness, increased sweating, heart palpitations. If this condition is not recognized in time, hypoglycemic coma may develop, which may result in death.
Glucotrol for cats and dogs
The main indication for the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs is when owners initially reject insulin therapy. Glipizide is currently the only substance with sufficient evidence to support its use as monotherapy in cats. It is given at an initial dose of 2.5 mg orally every 12 hours. If there are no side effects and glucose control is not achieved after 2 weeks, then the dose may be increased to 5 mg every 12 hours. A clinical response, if observed, is usually evident after 4-6 weeks. Owners often change their attitude to insulin therapy when glipizide is found to be ineffective.